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Occasionally, a fifth category will be included called "Safety". In the marketing industry, cause and effect diagrams will often consist of 7Ps: Product. Consider all aspects of what you're selling including its quality, its perceived image, availability, warranties, support and customer service. When people buy your product or service they may interact with many people: sales people, customer service people, delivery people, and so on. Are there any potential problems with your company culture?

Cause and Effect

How do you handle problems when they arise? Are they escalated properly? Is your staff trained appropriately and do they follow their training? Consider advertising, sales, PR, branding, direct marketing, partnerships, and social media. How does the price of your product or service compare to competitors?

What discounts and payment methods are available? How is your product or service consumed? Is how or where you present your product hurting your ability to convert? Are your facilities clean and tidy? Is the packaging cheap or expensive? Is your distribution efficient and cost-effective? Is your product sold in the right stores or neighborhoods? Are your stores convenient for your target customers? How to Make Cause and Effect Diagrams with SmartDraw SmartDraw makes creating cause and effect diagrams easy with built-in smart templates that let you add new causes in a single click and format your diagram automatically.

Use the online edition of SmartDraw on any computer or tablet Start Now. Download the Windows desktop edition of SmartDraw Download.

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Sign up for SmartDraw free. It mixes causes and possible causes without specifying evidence. And, it breaks apart the fundamental cause-and-effect relationships within an issue by grouping the causes into general categories. The 5-Why approach is an excellent example of basic cause-and-effect analysis. Just as a journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step, every investigation, regardless of size, begins with one Why question.

The Why questions then continue, passing through five, until enough Why questions have been asked and answered to sufficiently explain the incident. The 5-Why approach, created by Sakichi Toyoda — , the founder of Toyota, is a simple way to begin any investigation. A Cause Map can start with just one Why question and then expand to accommodate as many Why questions as necessary. ANDs show where more than one cause is required. When an effect has more than one cause, both causes are placed on the Cause Map.

Each cause is connected to the effect with AND placed in between. These causes are independent of each other, but they are both required to produce that effect. An AND is needed when people provide different, yet valid, explanations of a cause. People think of cause-and-effect as a simple one-to-one relationship: an effect has a cause. In reality, every effect has causes. View our selection of workshops specializing in Cause Mapping methodology and other topics related to risk and reliability — available as public workshops, on-site training, or online.

Whiteboard: Cause and Effect Diagrams

Bring a Workshop to Your Site. Three key principles of Cause Mapping are: Systems approach Reveal the system of causes to mitigate risk. The resulting rupture within your skin may form boil-like infections. If self-care remedies don't clear your acne, see your primary care doctor. He or she can prescribe stronger medications. If acne persists or is severe, you may want to seek medical treatment from a doctor who specializes in the skin dermatologist. For many women, acne can persist for decades, with flares common a week before menstruation.

This type of acne tends to clear up without treatment in women who use contraceptives. In older adults, a sudden onset of severe acne may signal an underlying disease requiring medical attention. The Food and Drug Administration FDA warns that some popular nonprescription acne lotions, cleansers and other skin products can cause a serious reaction.


This type of reaction is quite rare, so don't confuse it with the redness, irritation or itchiness where you've applied medications or products. Acne typically appears on your face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders because these areas of skin have the most oil sebaceous glands.

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Hair follicles are connected to oil glands. The follicle wall may bulge and produce a whitehead. Or the plug may be open to the surface and darken, causing a blackhead. A blackhead may look like dirt stuck in pores.

But actually the pore is congested with bacteria and oil, which turns brown when it's exposed to the air. Pimples are raised red spots with a white center that develop when blocked hair follicles become inflamed or infected with bacteria. Blockages and inflammation that develop deep inside hair follicles produce cystlike lumps beneath the surface of your skin. Other pores in your skin, which are the openings of the sweat glands, aren't usually involved in acne.

Acne develops when sebum — an oily substance that lubricates your hair and skin — and dead skin cells plug hair follicles. Bacteria can trigger inflammation and infection resulting in more severe acne.

Cause Mapping® Method | ThinkReliability, Root Cause Analysis

Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. Common acne Acne occurs when the openings of hair follicles become clogged and blocked with oil secretions and dead skin cells. Cystic acne Cystic acne — the most severe form of acne — occurs when oil and dead skin cells build up deep within hair follicles.