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In April , Britain and Russia signed a treaty with the aim of removing the French from the Batavian Republic roughly present-day Netherlands and the Swiss Confederation. Austria joined the alliance after the annexation of Genoa and the proclamation of Napoleon as King of Italy on 17 March Sweden, which had already agreed to lease Swedish Pomerania as a military base for British troops against France, entered the coalition on 9 August. The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria on 8 September [85] with an army of about 70, under Karl Mack von Leiberich , and the French army marched out from Boulogne in late July to confront them.

Far from his supply lines, he faced a larger Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov , with the Emperor Alexander I of Russia personally present. On 2 December, Napoleon crushed the Austro-Russian force in Moravia at Austerlitz usually considered his greatest victory. He inflicted 25, casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7, in his own force. Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg 26 December and left the coalition. With the withdrawal of Austria from the war, stalemate ensued. Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victories on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.

Napoleon had now consolidated his hold on France, had taken control of Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and most of Western Germany and northern Italy. His admirers say that Napoleon wanted to stop now, but was forced to continue in order to gain greater security from the countries that refused to accept his conquests. Esdaille rejects that explanation and instead says that it was a good time to stop expansion, for the major powers were ready to accept Napoleon as he was:.

In July , Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine out of the many tiny German states which constituted the Rhineland and most other western parts of Germany. He amalgamated many of the smaller states into larger electorates, duchies, and kingdoms to make the governance of non-Prussian Germany smoother. Napoleon elevated the rulers of the two largest Confederation states, Saxony and Bavaria , to the status of kings. The army of Russia, a Prussian ally, in particular was too far away to assist.

Out of , troops the Prussians sustained 25, casualties, lost a further , as prisoners, 4, artillery pieces, and over , muskets. At Jena, Napoleon had fought only a detachment of the Prussian force. Napoleon entered Berlin on 27 October He visited the tomb of Frederick the Great and instructed his marshals to remove their hats there, saying, "If he were alive we wouldn't be here today". Saxony left Prussia, and together with small states from north Germany, allied with France.

In the next stage of the war, the French drove Russian forces out of Poland and employed many Polish and German soldiers in several sieges in Silesia and Pomerania , with the assistance of Dutch and Italian soldiers in the latter case. A tactical draw at Eylau 7—8 February , followed by capitulation at Danzig 24 May and the Battle of Heilsberg 10 June , forced the Russians to withdraw further north.

Napoleon decisively beat the Russian army at Friedland 14 June , following which Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit 7 July By September, Marshal Guillaume Brune completed the occupation of Swedish Pomerania , allowing the Swedish army to withdraw with all its munitions of war. Britain's first response to Napoleon's Continental System was to launch a major naval attack against Denmark. Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark was under heavy French and Russian pressure to pledge its fleet to Napoleon. London could not take the chance of ignoring the Danish threat.

In August , the Royal Navy besieged and bombarded Copenhagen , leading to the capture of the Dano-Norwegian fleet , and assuring use of the sea lanes in the North and Baltic seas for the British merchant fleet. Denmark joined the war on the side of France, but without a fleet it had little to offer, [87] [88] beginning an engagement in a naval guerrilla war in which small gunboats attacking larger British ships in Danish and Norwegian waters. Denmark also committed themselves to participate in a war against Sweden together with France and Russia.

At Tilsit, Napoleon and Alexander had agreed that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System, which led to a Russian invasion of Finland in February , followed by a Danish declaration of war in March. Napoleon also sent an auxiliary corps, consisting of troops from France, Spain and the Netherlands , led by Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte , to Denmark to participate in the invasion of Sweden.

British voluntary attempts to assist Sweden with humanitarian aid remained limited and did not prevent Sweden from adopting a more Napoleon-friendly policy. In Napoleon created a powerful outpost of his empire in Central Europe. Poland had recently been partitioned by its three large neighbours, but Napoleon created the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, which depended on France from the very beginning.

The duchy consisted of lands seized by Austria and Prussia; its Grand Duke was Napoleon's ally the king of Saxony, but Napoleon appointed the intendants who ran the country. The population of 4. That included about 90, who marched with him to Moscow; few marched back. The Grand Duchy was dissolved in and Poland did not become a state until and only then because of the Bolshevik Revolution.

Napoleon's impact on Poland was huge, including the Napoleonic legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and the introduction of modern middle class bureaucracies. The sea became a major theatre of war against Napoleon's allies. During the time of the Fifth Coalition, the Royal Navy won a succession of victories in the French colonies. On land, the Fifth Coalition attempted few extensive military endeavours. One, the Walcheren Expedition of , involved a dual effort by the British Army and the Royal Navy to relieve Austrian forces under intense French pressure.

It ended in disaster after the Army commander, John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham , failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp. For the most part of the years of the Fifth Coalition, British military operations on land apart from the Iberian Peninsula remained restricted to hit-and-run operations executed by the Royal Navy, which dominated the sea after having beaten down almost all substantial naval opposition from France and its allies and blockading what remained of France's naval forces in heavily fortified French-controlled ports.

These rapid-attack operations were aimed mostly at destroying blockaded French naval and mercantile shipping and the disruption of French supplies, communications, and military units stationed near the coasts. Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of the sea, the Royal Navy would arrive, land troops and supplies, and aid the coalition's land forces in a concerted operation.

Royal Navy ships even provided artillery support against French units when fighting strayed near enough to the coastline. The ability and quality of the land forces governed these operations. For example, when operating with inexperienced guerrilla forces in Spain, the Royal Navy sometimes failed to achieve its objectives because of the lack of manpower that the Navy's guerrilla allies had promised to supply. Economic warfare continued: the French Continental System against the British naval blockade of French-controlled territory. Due to military shortages and lack of organisation in French territory, many breaches of the Continental System occurred as French-dominated states tolerated or even encouraged trade with British smugglers.

In terms of economic damage to Great Britain, the blockade was largely ineffective. As Napoleon realised that extensive trade was going through Spain and Russia, he invaded those two countries. He tied down his forces in Spain, and lost very badly in Russia in Both sides entered further conflicts in attempts to enforce their blockade; the British fought the United States in the War of —15 , and the French engaged in the Peninsular War —14 to prevent smuggling into Spain. The Iberian conflict began when Portugal continued trade with Britain despite French restrictions.

When Spain failed to maintain the Continental System, the uneasy Spanish alliance with France ended in all but name. French troops gradually encroached on Spanish territory until they occupied Madrid , and installed a client monarchy. This provoked an explosion of popular rebellions across Spain. Heavy British involvement soon followed.

Austria, previously an ally of France, took the opportunity to attempt to restore its imperial territories in Germany as held prior to Austerlitz. Austria achieved some initial victories against the thinly spread army of Marshal Berthier. Napoleon had left Berthier with only , men to defend France's entire eastern frontier in the s, , men had carried out the same task, but holding a much shorter front. After defeats in Spain suffered by France, Napoleon took charge and enjoyed success, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula Battle of Corunna , 16 January But when he left, the guerrilla war against his forces in the countryside continued to tie down great numbers of troops.

Austria's attack prevented Napoleon from successfully wrapping up operations against British forces by necessitating his departure for Austria, and he never returned to the Peninsular theatre. The Peninsular war proved a major disaster for France. Napoleon did well when he was in direct charge, but severe losses followed his departure, as he severely underestimated how much manpower would be needed.

The effort in Spain was a drain on money, manpower and prestige. Historian David Gates called it the "Spanish ulcer. All the circumstances of my disasters are bound up in that fatal knot. The Peninsular campaigns witnessed 60 major battles and 30 major sieges, more than any other of the Napoleonic conflicts, and lasted over six years, far longer than any of the others.

France and her allies lost at least 91, killed in action and , wounded in the peninsula. In the east, the Austrians drove into the Duchy of Warsaw but suffered defeat at the Battle of Raszyn on 19 April The Polish army captured West Galicia following its earlier success. Napoleon assumed personal command and bolstered the army for a counter-attack on Austria. After a few small battles, the well-run campaign forced the Austrians to withdraw from Bavaria, and Napoleon advanced into Austria.

His hurried attempt to cross the Danube resulted in the major Battle of Aspern-Essling 22 May — Napoleon's first significant tactical defeat. But the Austrian commander, Archduke Charles , failed to follow up on his indecisive victory, allowing Napoleon to prepare and seize Vienna in early July. He defeated the Austrians at Wagram , on 5—6 July. It was during the middle of that battle that Marshal Bernadotte was stripped of his command after retreating contrary to Napoleon's orders.

Shortly thereafter, Bernadotte took up the offer from Sweden to fill the vacant position of Crown Prince there. Later he actively participated in wars against his former Emperor. In the east, only the Tyrolese rebels led by Andreas Hofer continued to fight the French-Bavarian army until finally defeated in November In the west the Peninsular War continued.

The British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon behind their impregnable lines of Torres Vedras but besieged Cadiz. In , the French Empire reached its greatest extent. Napoleon married Marie-Louise , an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do.

Territories allied with the French included:. The War of coincided with the War of the Sixth Coalition. Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, while Europeans often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars.

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The United States declared war on Britain because of British interference with American merchant ships and forced enlistment into the British Royal Navy. France had interfered as well, and the US considered declaring war on France. The war ended in a military stalemate, and there were no boundary changes at the Treaty of Ghent , which took effect in early when Napoleon was on Elba. In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII, whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch. The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars.

In contrast, the Portuguese royal family escaped to Brazil and established the court there, resulting in political stability for Portuguese America. With the defeat of Napoleon and the return of the Braganza monarchy to Portugal, the heir remained in Brazil and declared Brazilian independence, achieving it peacefully with the territory intact. The Haitian Revolution began in , just before the French Revolutionary Wars , and continued until France's defeat resulted in the independence of Saint-Domingue and led Napoleon to sell the territory making up the Louisiana Purchase to the United States.

British men-of-war supported the Swedish fleet during the Finnish War and won victories over the Russians in the Gulf of Finland in July and August The success of the Russian army on land, however, forced Sweden to sign peace treaties with Russia in and with France in , and to join the blockade against Britain. But Franco-Russian relations became progressively worse after , and the Russian war with Britain effectively ended. Each wanted a semi-independent Poland he could control. The French forces crossed the Niemen River on 24 June The Poles supplied almost , men for the invasion force, but against their expectations, Napoleon avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind further negotiations with Russia.

This prevented the French march on the Russian capital, Saint Petersburg ; the fate of the invasion was decided in Moscow, where Napoleon led his forces in person. The main Russian army retreated for almost three months. Finally, the two armies engaged in the Battle of Borodino on 7 September, [] in the vicinity of Moscow. The battle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than , men and resulting in at least 70, casualties. It was indecisive; the French captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army.

Logistical difficulties meant that French casualties could not be replaced, unlike Russian ones. Napoleon entered Moscow on 14 September, after the Russian Army had retreated yet again. In October, with no sign of clear victory in sight, Napoleon began the disastrous Great Retreat from Moscow.

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At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets the French tried to reach Kaluga , where they could find food and forage supplies. The replenished Russian Army blocked the road, and Napoleon was forced to retreat the same way he had come to Moscow, through the heavily ravaged areas along the Smolensk road. When the remnants of the Napoleon's army crossed the Berezina River in November, only 27, fit soldiers survived, with , men dead or missing and , captured. The campaign effectively ended on 14 December , when the last enemy troops left Russia.

The Russians had lost around , men, but with their shorter supply lines, they soon replenished their armies. Seeing an opportunity in Napoleon's historic defeat, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, and several German states re-entered the war. Both battles involved forces of over ,, making them some of the largest conflicts of the wars so far. Metternich in November offered Napoleon the Frankfurt proposals. They would allow Napoleon to remain Emperor but France would be reduced to its "natural frontiers" and lose control of most of Italy and Germany and the Netherlands.

Napoleon still expected to win the wars, and rejected the terms. By , as the Allies were closing in on Paris, Napoleon did agree to the Frankfurt proposals, but it was too late and he rejected the new harsher terms proposed by the Allies. As the French regrouped, the Anglo—Portuguese entered Madrid and advanced towards Burgos, before retreating all the way to Portugal when renewed French concentrations threatened to trap them.

As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to end their long siege of Cadiz and to permanently evacuate the provinces of Andalusia and Asturias. In a strategic move, Wellesley planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander. The Anglo—Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos.

The French had to retreat out of the Iberian peninsula, over the Pyrenees. The belligerents declared an armistice from 4 June continuing until 13 August during which time both sides attempted to recover from the loss of approximately a quarter of a million men in the preceding two months. During this time coalition negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France. Two principal Austrian armies took the field, adding , men to the coalition armies in Germany. The Allies now had around , front-line soldiers in the German theatre, with a strategic reserve of , formed to support the front-line operations.

Napoleon succeeded in bringing the imperial forces in the region to around ,—although only , came under his direct command, with another , under Nicolas Charles Oudinot and 30, under Davout. The remainder of imperial forces came mostly from the Confederation of the Rhine, especially Saxony and Bavaria. In Spain, another , to , French troops steadily retreated before Anglo—Portuguese forces numbering around , Thus around , Frenchmen in all theatres faced around 1,, coalition soldiers including the strategic reserve under formation in Germany.

The gross figures may mislead slightly, as most of the German troops fighting on the side of the French fought at best unreliably and stood on the verge of defecting to the Allies. One can reasonably say that Napoleon could count on no more than , men in Germany—which left him outnumbered about four to one.

Following the end of the armistice, Napoleon seemed to have regained the initiative at Dresden August , where he once again defeated a numerically superior coalition army and inflicted enormous casualties, while sustaining relatively few. The failures of his marshals and a slow resumption of the offensive on his part cost him any advantage that this victory might have secured.

At the Battle of Leipzig in Saxony 16—19 October , also called the "Battle of the Nations", , French fought more than , Allies, and the defeated French had to retreat into France. After the French withdrawal from Germany, Napoleon's remaining ally, Denmark-Norway , became isolated and fell to the coalition. Napoleon then fought a series of battles in France, including the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube , but the overwhelming numbers of the Allies steadily forced him back. The Allies entered Paris on 30 March During this time Napoleon fought his Six Days' Campaign , in which he won multiple battles against the enemy forces advancing towards Paris.

During this entire campaign he never managed to field more than 70, men against more than half a million coalition soldiers. At the Treaty of Chaumont 9 March , the Allies agreed to preserve the coalition until Napoleon's total defeat. Napoleon determined to fight on, even now, incapable of fathoming his fall from power. During the campaign he had issued a decree for , fresh conscripts, but only a fraction of these materialised, and Napoleon's schemes for victory eventually gave way to the reality of his hopeless situation.

Napoleon abdicated on 6 April. Occasional military actions continued in Italy, Spain, and Holland in early They signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau 11 April and initiated the Congress of Vienna to redraw the map of Europe. The Allies rapidly gathered their armies to meet him again.

Napoleon raised , men, whom he distributed among several armies. To add to the 90,strong standing army, he recalled well over a quarter of a million veterans from past campaigns and issued a decree for the eventual draft of around 2. This faced an initial coalition force of about ,—although coalition campaign plans provided for one million front-line soldiers, supported by around , garrison, logistics and other auxiliary personnel. Napoleon took about , men of the Army of the North on a pre-emptive strike against the Allies in Belgium.

His march to the frontier achieved the surprise he had planned, catching the Anglo-Dutch Army in a dispersed arrangement. He forced Prussia to fight at Ligny on 16 June , and the defeated Prussians retreated in disorder. Ney failed to clear the cross-roads and Wellington reinforced the position. But with the Prussian retreat, Wellington too had to retreat. He fell back to a previously reconnoitred position on an escarpment at Mont St Jean, a few miles south of the village of Waterloo. Napoleon took the reserve of the Army of the North, and reunited his forces with those of Ney to pursue Wellington's army, after he ordered Marshal Grouchy to take the right wing of the Army of the North and stop the Prussians re-grouping.

In the first of a series of miscalculations, both Grouchy and Napoleon failed to realise that the Prussian forces were already reorganised and were assembling at the village of Wavre. The French army did nothing to stop a rather leisurely retreat that took place throughout the night and into the early morning by the Prussians. As the 4th, 1st, and 2nd Prussian Corps marched through the town towards Waterloo the 3rd Prussian Corps took up blocking positions across the river, and although Grouchy engaged and defeated the Prussian rearguard under the command of Lt-Gen von Thielmann in the Battle of Wavre 18—19 June it was 12 hours too late.

In the end, 17, Prussians had kept 33, badly needed French reinforcements off the field. Napoleon delayed the start of fighting at the Battle of Waterloo on the morning of 18 June for several hours while he waited for the ground to dry after the previous night's rain. By late afternoon, the French army had not succeeded in driving Wellington's forces from the escarpment on which they stood. When the Prussians arrived and attacked the French right flank in ever-increasing numbers, Napoleon's strategy of keeping the coalition armies divided had failed and a combined coalition general advance drove his army from the field in confusion.

Davout was defeated at the Battle of Issy and negotiations for surrender had begun. On arriving at Paris three days after Waterloo, Napoleon still clung to the hope of a concerted national resistance; but the temper of the legislative chambers , and of the public generally, did not favour his view. Lacking support Napoleon abdicated again on 22 June , and on 15 July he surrendered to the British squadron at Rochefort. Beethoven composed his first symphony in and his ninth in Franz Schubert was born in Vienna and composed more than 1, works, but he had little support and died in at the age of In Hungary had about 9.

A severe drought in caused a poor harvest. On 28 January Austrian Emperor Joseph II sent a letter to the Hungarian counties canceling his reforms, but the nobles responded by demanding a legislature. Joseph promised to summon a Diet in , but he died on 20 February Martinovics had joined the Freemasons, and they were outlawed. In July he had met Ferenc Gotthardi, the secret police chief in Pest, and Martinovics became an informer reporting various plots by fellow Masonic Illuminati, Jesuits, and patriots.

The Diet of established the Catholic Church in Hungary, but other Christian denominations also had rights. Croatian delegates defended Latin and kept Magyar from becoming the national language except in institutions of higher learning. At the coronation Diet in , the Hungarian nobles and clergy approved the recruiting of 50, more men for the war against the French. In response to the French Revolution by radical Jacobins had sprung up in Budapest, Vienna, and Graz, and the Austrian police made many arrests that led to harsh prison sentences and executions.

He wrote a catechism for them and urged Hungarian nobles to form a federal republic that would give each nationality their own territory. They hoped that the nobles would retain their privileges while the peasants would be liberated to become free tenants. In a few months the two societies gained members. Emperor Leopold II had persuaded his brother Franz to follow his policy of censorship and police power to protect the monarchy. The Austrian minister of police Count Pergen advised that the revolutionaries had not yet been suppressed.

Two army officers were pilloried for three days and then hanged in Vienna. Other conspirators were sentenced to life for treason and died in prison. In a censorship committee banned thousands of books that had been published in the s. In Herder had speculated that the Magyars Hungarians would be absorbed by Slavs, Germans, and Romanians, and efforts were made to preserve the Hungarian language and culture.

In official correspondence with the government allowed only Magyar to accompany the Latin text. The county of Pest instructed their communities to hire schoolteachers who spoke Magyar where none had been teaching. The Napoleonic Wars had few battles in Hungary. Napoleon proclaimed that he would restore Hungarian independence, but the nobles did not respond favorably.

In the Hungarian Diet approved the Austrian currency reform which doubled their taxes. The Hungarians refused to extend the imperial patent, and Emperor Franz dissolved the Diet in War hero Col. In Metternich advised Emperor Franz II to convene the Hungarian Diet for the first time since ; but most nobles opposed making Hungarian the official language because they spoke German. From September to July the Hungarian aristocrats criticized royal encroachment against their privileges.

He opposed violence and revolution, and he worked to promote the Hungarian economy. In he organized a forum for patriotic Hungarian nobles, and in he published his allegorical On Horses in Magyar. After being released he worked for Hungarian independence. After the French withdrew from Vienna, he moved to Paris. In Austrian authorities arrested him and forced him to live in Linz until his death in Kazinczy was the education inspector for several counties from , and he published his essays in Orpheus He was involved with Martinovics and favored a bloodless revolution.

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He was arrested and spent 2, days in prison from December to June He condemned the oppression of Jews. In he argued that critical reviews are good for writers and readers. In he founded a literary journal called Aurora which he ran until his death in The Swiss Confederation had formed a year alliance with France in On 31 August an unpaid Swiss regiment mutinied in France at Nancy. A Council of War had 23 men executed, 41 sent to the galleys at Toulon, and the rest were banished from the Confederation for life.

In September people in lower Valais rose up against the Lords of Upper Valais, and they reached agreement for nearly a year when another rebellion was punished. Pierre Ochs in Basel persuaded the Great Council to abolish the remnants of serfdom in December On 14 July patriots in Vaud celebrated the fall of the Bastille with speeches and revolutionary songs. Bern sent 2, troops to Lausanne, summoned Vaud town councilors, and threatened them with charges of treason. When the French went to war in , they annexed the Duchy of Savoy. They threatened the western borders of Switzerland while the armies of the allies opposing them endangered the east.

Bern, Solothurn, and Basel declared their neutrality and prepared their defenses, and a meeting of cantons was convened in May. On 10 August an armed mob stormed the royal palace in Paris and slaughtered nearly Swiss guards, and during the September terror another were killed. The Bishop of Basel felt threatened by French troops and asked for help from the Catholic cantons.

The Swiss Diet discussed the issue in September and granted permission for Austrian troops to march to Basel. The Swiss Confederation declared its historic neutrality and ordered the enemies of France put under surveillance or expelled. By early a large coalition of nations opposed France and imposed an economic blockade. The Swiss borders remained open, and the French imported many goods at high prices including things Swiss merchants traded from Austria, south Germany, Italy, and Hungary.

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In the next winter 9, horses and 30, German rifles were sold to the French. Taxes on arable land brought in 8,, Swiss francs annually in tithes with three-quarters going to the state and the rest to individuals. Hans Heinrich Nehracher —97 wrote a memorial with many reforms for Zurich; but the government believed it would incite an insurrection. They burned it publicly and punished Nehracher and his associates. In the Abbot of St. Gallen agreed to a treaty that provided some financial relief to serfs. After French troops invaded Savoy in the fall of , Geneva appealed to Bern and Zurich for support and received nearly 2, troops.

In negotiations the French assured Genevans they would not invade. Swiss troops withdrew on 30 November, and on 4 December the Revolution took over Geneva. A French leader gained control of the insurgents and imposed a reign of terror that lasted until The French made the northern part of Basel, which was in the Reich, the Rauracian Republic on 17 December but absorbed it into France on 23 March In the fall of near the city of Basel the armies of France and Austria faced each other.

The Swiss Diet sent a Bernese army to guard the border.

In the first three years of the war about 25, deserters mostly from France went through Basel to the Austrian depot at Lorrach. Switzerland was inundated with pamphlets, leaflets, and rumors as French agents campaigned against the War Party. Bern issued an expulsion decree on 17 June Bern ended diplomatic relations with France. Leaders of the Peace Party hoped that the terror in France would not last long, and they opposed wasteful military preparations.

Basel sent Ochs to negotiate with the Directory, and General Napoleon Bonaparte persuaded him to write a new constitution for a Swiss republic in November. The French blockaded Geneva in December. That month French troops took over more of the Basel bishopric. A Diet met at Aarau on the 27th, and members took an oath of allegiance.

French agents persuaded the Schwyz to give up sovereignty over Uznach and Gaster while St. Gallen recognized a new republic in Toggenburg and Uri. A French army invaded Vaud and occupied Lausanne without resistance on 24 January , declaring it a republic. Bern proclaimed liberty and equality before the law on 5 February and gained a day armistice but granted Erlach emergency powers. The French fought their way to Bern as Steiger fled to the uplands. On 12 April deputies from ten cantons proclaimed the Helvetic Republic. The French seized money stored in cellars under council houses and shipped it to Paris.

From the arsenals in Bern the French took cannons and 33, muskets. The republic was to be a representative democracy, but the cantons lost their independence and legislative powers. On 4 May they abolished the last traces of serfdom dues. On 29 June the Helvetians elected a Directory of Five with Ochs as their leader and de la Harpe as his associate.

The legislative branch had a senate with four deputies from each canton and a Great Council with twice as many deputies. The councils elected the judges of the cantonal tribunals. Every citizen over 20 was required to swear loyalty to serve the Republic. German had been the language of the Confederation, but now French and Italian were given equal recognition.

The French had taken much money and many goods from the Swiss. They demanded 14 million livres from Bern and 8 million from the other cantons, and they took twelve hostages from Bern and eight from Solothurn until they were paid. Appenzell had refused to recognize the Helvetic constitution, and people resisted in Schwyz, Nidwalden, and Valais. The Directory sent a French force of 10, men under General Schauenburg against 1, Nidwaldeners, and over September they killed people including many women and children. On 19 October a decree abolished coercion by guilds or corporations by establishing liberty in industrial occupations.

All punishments for religious or sectarian opinions were abolished. Some of the property of the monasteries was to be used for educational and charitable purposes. On 24 August the Helvetic Republic formed a military alliance with France. Napoleon demanded that the Swiss raise 16, soldiers, but only could be recruited. France forced the government to make military service compulsory for men aged 20 to 45 years.

Two Russian armies also invaded. The Swiss cantons suffered tremendous damage, and the harvests of and were destroyed, causing a famine. The Helvetic government asked France to pay them 25 million francs, but Napoleon said it was the price of liberty. Ochs was charged with giving state secrets to the French and was removed, and on 7 January de la Harpe and two other directors were also dismissed.

The Councils replaced the Directory with an executive council of seven. A few months later the two legislative councils were replaced by a Council of He provided his Malmaison constitution for a referendum on 25 May. Alois Reding was elected the Landammann. On 27 September the Diet meeting in Schwyz adopted a federalist constitution. Bern tried but failed to take over Aargau and Vaud. Napoleon on 21 October sent 12, troops under General Ney, and rebel leaders were imprisoned in Aarburg. In November about 60 delegates who were mostly Unitarians went to Paris and asked Napoleon to draft a constitution.

He ignored them but presented his Mediation Constitution on 19 February which provided a compromise. The thirteen cantons had much of their power restored, and the six new cantons were to be St. The Landammann was given more power and was to be the leader of each of the six cities as sessions rotated from Basel to Bern to Freiburg to Lucerne, to Solothurn and to Zurich. The individual cantons were not allowed to ally with foreign powers, and customs barriers were abolished.

Privileges ended along with subject classes. Most cantons chose democratic governments, but Bern, Lucerne, Freiburg, and Solothurn adopted traditional aristocratic systems. Napoleon was authorized to recruit 6, Swiss to fight in Europe and 8, more if France was attacked. The federal government was to supervise the roads and bridges. The Swiss were compelled to pay France 28 million francs for the military occupation. Another European war broke out in The Swiss declared neutrality on 23 September, but four days later they allied with France.

The war had devastating effects on the Swiss and their economy. On the 21st he declared a continental blockade against trade with Britain that imposed duties on goods of English origin. This hurt Swiss textiles that needed British machine yarn. In Britain reacted with a blockade of ports that excluded their goods.

Many skilled weavers and spinners emigrated from Switzerland along with men who did not want to serve in the army. Eventually the Swiss sent him 12, criminals and other troublemakers. In a war against Austria in the Swiss were neutral again and sent forces to defend the border. In August the blockade was made more strict. By then the Swiss had suffered twelve years of military occupation, political interference, bankruptcies, unemployment, food shortages, and emigration.

For his Russian campaign in Napoleon got 9, Swiss soldiers, but only returned. Zurich and Basel improved their schools. Philipp Albrecht Stapfer promoted compulsory education for all children of both sexes with pensions for retired teachers, but his plans were considered too costly. Hans Konrad Escher led the work on a canal from Mollis to the Walensee which began in and was completed in , greatly increasing the arable land. The Diet called for at least 15, men, but the Swiss could not prevent the Allied armies with , troops from passing through Switzerland in December.

Typhus and other diseases broke out and spread among the Swiss. On the 23rd Bern terminated the Mediation and declared a provisional government. On the 31st Austrian and Prussian diplomats wrote to the Landammann urging Switzerland to lay down arms and be independent and adopt a constitution. A federal militia of 30, men was to defend their neutrality, and any canton could call for federal assistance.

Treaties between cantons were not allowed, and disputes between cantons were to be settled by arbitration. Political rights were protected against class favoritism. Only the Confederation Diet could declare war or make peace and commercial treaties with foreign powers. The national debt was recognized as 3,, Swiss francs, which is what it was on 1 November In Bern, Lucerne, Freiburg, and Solothurn the patrician families regained their authority. Each canton had an equal number of deputies in the Diet even though Berne with , people and Zurich with , greatly outnumbered the small cantons.

In March the Swiss sent 15, soldiers to join the Allies against Napoleon, and later they sent 15, more to protect their western border.

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In June the Allies were allowed to march through Basel. The powers recognized the perpetual neutrality of the Swiss. Landammann Reinhard demanded they be returned to the Swiss Confederation, but Austria gained control over them. Pictet de Rochemont represented the Swiss at the Paris peace talks, and in the treaty on 29 November he obtained for the Swiss Confederation 3 million francs in war compensation. On 16 March the treaty at Turin established the borders of the Geneva canton, and free trade zones were extended into Savoy.

After the Napoleonic Wars the British flooded the market with the textiles they had accumulated during the economic blockade. Swiss industry was also harmed by high tariffs imposed against their exports of textiles, watches, and other metal products. On 28 April the French stopped almost all imports from Switzerland, and a similar policy was adopted by the Netherlands in October and by Spain and Austria in as well as by Germans and most Italians. Heavy snow and flooding ruined the harvests of , and the price of bread multiplied by eight.

The Swiss suffered one of their worst famines in The Diet established a military board and organization in and a military academy at Thun in The Helvetic Society that had been dissolved in was revived to provide a forum for debating problems in That year 1, people from Freiburg emigrated to Brazil. Switzerland accepted refugees from the intellectual repression in Germany, Austria, Spain, and Piedmont in the s, but in the Swiss Diet passed the stringent Conclusum law against foreigners and publishing which stimulated radicals to renew their activities.

The cantons were ordered to deny asylum to criminals and those who might menace the peace. All 22 cantons favored protecting the social order. Many liberals demanded reforms and supported the Greek rebellion for independence from the Turks. The Conclusum was ignored and finally abolished in That year Holland disbanded their Swiss regiments. The innovative educator Heinrich Pestalozzi became interested in the French Revolution.

In he visited his sister in Leipzig and became acquainted with Goethe, Herder, and Wieland. In Neuhof he persuaded Fichte to accept his educational approach. He supported the liberal Swiss Revolution of Yet as he observed the cruelty of the French invasion of Switzerland, he was disappointed how the French moved away from their principles of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.

In September in the small town of Stans they massacred people, and in the Niederwalden Canton the French devastated the poorhouse for children. The Swiss government established an orphanage and hired Pestalozzi in December to be its director, and in January many orphans arrived there; but he had no materials and only a housekeeper to help him.

In June a defeated French army returned to Stans and closed the school. Using this he succeeded so well with young children that after eight months the school board promoted him to teach older boys. In October he opened another school in Burgdorf Castle. Pestalozzi wrote How Gertrude Teaches her Children and published it in This book was successful, and the school grew.

In when a conservative form of federalism was imposed, Pestalozzi had to give up his experiments at Burgdorf. In he went to Paris to ask Napoleon for support, but he was ignored. In May the Yverdon institute began publishing a newspaper. As the number of students in the elementary school increased, the school expanded.

He worked at Yverdon until when the school had to close because it lacked funds. In July , the brigade was posted to the 31st Division, with which it saw action in Saxony. At the end of October, the remnants of the brigade, a total strength of officers and men marched back to Naples, together with the remnants of the cavalry brigade.

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The Neapolitan troops who had remained in Danzig — namely the centre companies of the 5th, 6th and 7th Regiments — were formed into a brigade with a total of 96 officers and men. At this point, on 1 January , the 7th Regiment mustered a total of 21 officers and men. On 21 January , the Russian siege of Danzig began. For its defence, parts of the garrison were distributed among the surrounding suburbs, among these the Neapolitan Brigade. The siege lasted throughout , and was marked by attacks by the allies and sorties by the garrison troops.

Our Neapolitans took part in several of these actions, so that by 1 April the 7th Regiment had been reduced to 20 officers and men — a further men were in hospital. By the middle of the year, the regiment mustered only 21 officers and men. On 1 January , the garrison of Danzig under General Rapp, which had resisted the allies for almost a year, capitulated and entered captivity. After intervention by King Murat, who in the meantime had defected to the Allies, the Neapolitan troops were soon released, and returned to their home by the middle of The Neapolitans had a bad reputation with the French as well as with the allied troops, which led to Napoleon refusing to award them regimental eagles.

However, the 7th Regiment counts as one of the best, due to its years of military experience. Shako after the French model, made from black felt with black leather top and black leather bands on the upper and lower edges. Black leather peak — Sources 1 and 6 show the peak with a brass rim. Chin straps with overlaid brass scales. Heart-shaped plate. Cockade outer ring white and inner ring amaranth-coloured. Loop of white leather ribbon. Brass button. Fusiliers had a flattened pompom in the facing colour with a white centre.

Source 6 follows the French regulations and shows round pompoms in the colour of the individual company. Voltigeurs had a round yellow pompom, to which a yellow plume was fixed for parades. According to Source 2, similar to the voltigeurs, the fusiliers wore a round black pompom with affixed black plume for parades. In the field, shakos were covered with a black oilcloth and worn without pompom. Grenadiers wore black or brown bearskins with red cords and red tassel at the top as well as a red plume on the left-hand side. Under the plume was the cockade as above.

Red top with white grenade in the centre. Decree number of 17 December specified a new uniform, with the coat stipulated as follows. Short-tailed coat with closed lapels in the style of the French habit-veste. Collar, lapels, turnbacks and cuffs have yellow as facing colour, the basic colour of the coat is white.

Seven brass buttons on each lapel. Fusiliers have white shoulder straps with yellow piping — the shoulder straps are pointed at the shoulder and rounded at the collar. Source 1 shows the button at the shoulder end of the strap. Yellow three-pointed cuff flaps with white piping according to Sources 2 and 9 or white cuff flaps with yellow piping according to Sources 1 and 5. Three brass buttons on each cuff flap. The sources contradict each other on the style of the cuff flap, even the Freiburger Bilderhandschrift shows two different styles in four pictures — one is the style with three points French , the other is the smooth, rectangular form Prussian.

Grenadiers have red grenades on the turnbacks, whereas the voltigeurs have yellow hunting horns. Vertical coat pockets with yellow piping and three points, each with brass button. In a sketch, Source 2 shows yellow turnbacks with white piping, which is confirmed by Source 1 for other regiments, but not for the 7th. According to Sources 1 and 2, all turnbacks are piped in white, but in contemporary drawings and descriptions there is no mention of white piping of the facing colours. This is especially true for the Freiberger Bilderhandschrift , which only shows white piping on the cuffs.

The gaiters have either brass buttons or buttons which are covered in a black fabric. In the field, long white trousers according to Sources 1 and 3. Source 5 points out that in the garrison of Danzig, the occupying troops were issued with dark blue trousers. These had red stripes on the outer seams for the grenadiers, yellow stripes for the voltigeurs and were without stripes for the fusiliers. Single-breasted grey overcoat with collar patch in the facing colour — i. Brown calfskin knapsack with white shoulder straps. White leather double crossbelts were worn. Fusiliers were supposed to have only the cartridge box belt with a frog for the bayonet scabbard, but Source 3 shows a fusilier with an additional cross belt for a sabre-briquet probably with white sword knot.

The sabre-briquet with cross belt was only supposed to be issued to fusilier NCOs. The grenadiers have a sabre-briquet with red sword knot and the voltigeurs one with yellow sword knot. The grenadiers have a brass grenade as decoration on their black leather cartridge box.

There is no definite information on this subject for the voltigeurs and fusiliers. The musket is the French Model, probably manufactured in Italy, with white leather sling. On the upper edge of the collar and running around the front, a double row of livery lace, which is alternately white and amaranth-coloured. The lapels also had lace as described above. On each sleeve, 7 upward-pointing chevrons of the same lace, although some sources only show 6 chevrons. On the front and back seams of the sleeve there was also continuous lace. The cuff was also edged with lace.

White drum belt with drum stick holder. Drum sticks painted black with brass caps on the butts. Drummers carried sabre-briquets with the appropriate sword knots for their particular company. Brass drum shell. Drum hoops with triangular pattern, i. White ropes. Shako as for the other ranks. Amaranth-coloured collar with white or silver lace. Amaranth-coloured cuffs with white trimming. No cuff flaps. White vertical piping, which overlaps the cuff by half of its length.

White turnbacks with amaranth-coloured piping.